Introduction
Each transformation can have an output in a finite automaton. There are two types of outputgenerating finite state machines and those are:
 Mealy Machine
 Moore machine
Let us discuss Moore and mealy machine with Moore and mealy machine examples.
In this article let us look at:
 Moore Machines
 Mealy Machines
 Conversion from Mealy to Moore Machine
 Conversion from Moore machine to mealy machine
 Difference between moore and mealy machine
1. Moore Machines
Moore’s machine is a finite state machine (FSM) whose outputs are solely dependent on the current state. Let us define as (Q, q0, ∑, O, δ, λ) where:
 Q = finite set of states.
 q0 = initial state.
 ∑ = input alphabet.
 O = output alphabet.
 δ = transition function that maps Q×∑ → Q.
 λ = output function that maps Q → O.
In fig. 1, the output of the Moore machine is represented by /, which distinguishes each input state. A Moore machine output is one length longer than its input.
11 inputs
(q0,11)=> (q2,1)=>q2 Transition
Result: 000
2. Mealy Machines
Mealy machines are FSM with an output value that is determined by the current state and input symbol. It can be written as (Q, q0, ∑, O, δ, λ’), where:
 Q = finite set of states.
 q0 = initial state.
 ∑ = input alphabet.
 O = output alphabet.
 δ = transition function that maps Q×∑ → Q.
 ‘λ’ = output function that maps Q×∑→ O.
The output of the mealy machine depicted in Figure 1 is represented by each input symbol. The output length of a mealy machine is the same as the input length.
Input: 11
Transition: δ (q0, 11)=> δ(q2,1)=>q2
Output: 00
3. Conversion from Mealy to Moore Machine
Take a look at Figure 2 for a mealy system transformation chart. This will make a clear understanding of mealy to Moore conversion.
Input=0  Input=1  
Present State  Next State  Output  Next State  Output 
q0  q1  0  q2  0 
q1  q1  0  q2  1 
q2  q1  1  q2  0 
Table – 1
Step 1: Identify the states that have multiple outputs associated with them. The states q1 and q2 have all outputs and 0, 1 is associated with them.
Step 2: For each of these states, create two states. Q10 (output 0 state) and q11 (output 1 state) will be the two states for q1 (output 1 state). Similarly, q2 will have two states: q20 and q21.
Step 3: Generate a new state for an empty Moore machine. The output of a Moore state diagram will be associated with each state, regardless of the inputs.
Step 4: Using the transition table in Table 1, fill in the entries for the next state. The next state for q0 on input 0 is q10. Similarly, the next state for q0 on input 1 is q20. On input 0, the next state for q1 is q10. Similarly, the next state for q1 is q21. The output for q10 will be 0 and for q11, it will be 1.
Input=0  Input=1  
Present State  Next State  Next State  Output 
q0  q10  q20  0 
q10  q10  q21  0 
q11  q10  q21  1 
q20  q11  q20  0 
q21  q11  q20  1 
Table – 2
4. Conversion from Moore machine to mealy machine
Step 1: Let us assemble all of the Moore machine states using all an empty mealy machine(in Table 4).
Input=0  Input=1  
Present State  Next State  Output  Next State  Output 
q0  
q10  
q11  
q20  
q21 
Table – 3
Step 2: From the Moore Machine Transition Table, you will find the next state for each state as follows:
Input=0  Input=1  
Present State  Next State  Output  Next State  Output 
q0  q10  q20  
q10  q10  q21  
q11  q10  q21  
q20  q11  q20  
q21  q11  q20 
Table – 4
Step 3: In the Moore machine transition table, we can see that each input corresponds to an output. Fill in the Output entries with this. For Moore machine example, the output for q11, q20, q10 and q21 is 0, 1, 0, and 1, respectively.
Input=0  Input=1  
Present State  Next State  Output  Next State  Output 
q0  q10  0  q20  0 
q10  q10  0  q21  1 
q11  q10  0  q21  1 
q20  q11  1  q20  0 
q21  q11  1  q20  0 
Table – 5
Step 4: As can be seen in table 6, q10 and q11 are very similar. Similarly, q20 and q21 have a lot in common. As a result, q11 and q21 can be ruled out.
Input=0  Input=1  
Present State  Next State  Output  Next State  Output 
q0  q10  0  q20  0 
q10  q10  0  q21  1 
q20  q11  1  q20  0 
Table – 6
5. Difference between moore and mealy machine
The points that distinguish between a moore and mealy machine are highlighted in the table below.
Mealy Machine  Moore Machine 
The output is determined by both the current state and the current input.  The output solely determined by the current state. 
It has fewer states than the Moore Machine  It has a larger number of states than Mealy Machine. 
When the input logic on the current state is completed, the value of the output function is a function of the transitions and modifications.  When state changes occur, the output function’s value is a function of the current state and the changes at the clock edges. 
Mealy machines respond to inputs more quickly. They all tend to respond in the same way.  More logic is needed to decode the outputs in the Moore model, resulting in longer circuit delays. They usually respond after one clock cycle. 
Conclusion
Hope this article has given a clear idea about the moore and mealy machine and the application of Moore and mealy machine.
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