Categories: Cloud Computing

MAC Protocols: An Interesting Guide (2021)


Every PC is particularly recognized by its Media Access Control or MAC address. Each Network Interface card has a physical address known as Media Access Control or MAC. It is utilized to recognize various PCs on a network. These are connected to network connectors. These addresses are allocated by the hardware maker, and these IDs are scorched in firmware. Media Access Control or MAC protocol is the primary protocol layer over the ad hoc Physical Layer.

It is utilised at the data link layer. Media Access Control or MAC is the one logical link sub-layer, and another sub-layer is the data link layer. An illustration of a Media Access Control or MAC address is D4-BE-D9-8D-46-9A.

The essential errand of any Media Access Control or MAC protocol is to control the entrance of the nodes to a common medium.

The fundamental of MAC protocol is to direct the entry of a few nodes to a common medium so that specific application-subordinate execution necessities are satisfied.

In this article let us look at:

  1. List of classifications
  2. Functions performed in the MAC sublayer
  3. On account of Ethernet, the capacities expected of a Media Access Control or MAC are
  4. Applications of MAC protocol
  5. Extended Unique Identifier or EUI-64 identifiers are utilized in

1. List of classifications

The classification of MAC protocols or types of MAC protocol or types of MAC are:

  • Contention based protocols without reservation.
  • Contention based protocols with reservation.
  • Contention based protocols with scheduling.
  • Other protocols.

MAC layer protocols:

MAC Protocols for Ad-hoc
Contention based(i) Sender Initiated(1) Single ChannelMACAW,
(2) Multiple ChannelBTMA,
(ii) Receiver InitiatedRI-BTMA,
Contention based with reservation(i)SynchronousD-PRMA,
(ii)AsynchronousMACA or PR,

1. Contention based protocols without reservation:

  • No assurances.
  • Bandwidth isn’t reserved.

2. Contention based protocols with reservation:

  • Assurances can be given.
  • Bandwidth is reserved.

3. Contention based protocols with scheduling:

  • Assurances can be given.
  • Conveyed planning is done between nodes.

4. Other protocols:

  • It can, likewise utilise a new methodology.
  • Consolidate numerous highlights of different protocols.

1. Contention based protocols without reservation:

(i) Sender Initiated: 

The packets transmission is started by the sender node. 

  1. Single Channel sender started. For instance, FAMA, MACAW.
  2. Multiple Channel started protocols. For instance, ICSMA, DBTMA, BTMA.

(ii) Receiver Initiated: 

The connection is started by the beneficiary node—for instance, MARCH, MACA-BI, RI-BTMA.

2. Contention based protocols with reservation:

(i) Synchronous protocols:

In synchronous protocols, all node is kept synchronized—for instance, FPRP, SRMA or PA, HRMA, CATA, D-PRMA.

(ii) Asynchronous protocols:

Relative time data is utilised to accomplish affecting restrictions—for instance, RTMAC, MACA or PR.

3. Contention based protocols with scheduling:

Every one of the nodes is dealt with similarly, and no node is getting denied of data transmission. For instance, DLPS, DWOP, DPS.

4. Other protocols:

These Media Access Control or MAC protocol don’t carefully fall into any above classification. For instance, RBAR, PCM, MCSMA, MMAC.

2. Functions performed in the MAC sublayer

As indicated by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE Std 802-2001 area 6.2.3 Media Access Control or MAC sublayer, the essential capacities performed by the MAC layer are: 

  • Frame recognition and delimiting.
  • Tending to objective stations (both as groups of stations & as individual stations).
  • Transport of source-station tending to data.
  • Straightforward information moves of Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol Data Unit, or identical data in the Ethernet sublayer.
  • Assurance against blunders, by and large utilising producing and checking outline check arrangements.
  • Control of admittance to the actual transmission medium.

3. On account of Ethernet, the capacities expected of a Media Access Control or MAC are

  • Transmit or receive typical frames.
  • Backoff functions & half-duplex retransmission.
  • Check or attach FCS.
  • Interframe hole implementation.
  • Dispose of contorted frames.
  • Remove (rx) or prepend (tx) prelude, padding and SFD.
  • Half-duplex similarity: remove (rx) or append (tx) Media Access Control or MAC address.

4. Applications of MAC protocol

The accompanying network innovations utilise the Extended Unique Identifier or EUI-48 identifier design:

  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE 802 networks.
  • Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
  • IEEE 802.5 Token Ring
  • Bluetooth
  • 802.11 Wi-Fi
  • Ethernet
  • Fiber Channel and Serial Attached SCSI.
  • The ITU-T standard, which gives an approach to make a fast LAN home wiring.
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode, exchanged virtual associations just, as a feature of a Network Service Access Point or NSAP address.
  • Each gadget that associates with an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE 802 network (like Wi-Fi and Ethernet) has a EUI-48 location. Basic arranged customer gadgets like tablet computers, cell phones and PCs use EUI-48 addresses.

5. Extended Unique Identifier or EUI-64 identifiers are utilized in

  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE 11073-20601
  • 6LoWPAN or 802.15.4 or ZigBee wireless personal-area networks
  • IPv6
  • InfiniBand
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE 1394 (FireWire).


The issue related to the design of Media Access Control or MAC protocols for wireless Ad hoc networks are QoS support, bandwidth efficiency, time synchronization, error-prone, broadcast and shared channel, and node mobility.

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Ajay Ohri

Published by
Ajay Ohri

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