Introduction

There are three basic service models in cloud computing that enable users to access the shared pool of resources. These services are provided by the service providers, reducing the management effort of the end-user. The architecture for these service models can be for single or multiple users. To get in-depth knowledge of this concept, we need to get acquainted with the SaaS service model. The concept of Single Tenant vs multi tenant is explained below to give you clarity.

Software as a Service (SaaS) provides the end-users with the ability to access an application over the internet that is hosted and managed by the service provider. Thus, the end-users are exempted from developing, managing, or controlling the applications and their underlying infrastructure. SaaS has changed the way the software is delivered to the customers.

SaaS is delivered as an on-demand service over the internet, instead of the traditional software model, where the software was delivered as a license-based product that needed to be installed in the end-user device. Therefore there is no need to install the software on the end-users devices. SaaS provides users access to a large variety of applications over the internet that are hosted on the service provider’s infrastructure. Saas providers have a different architecture for single-tenant and multi-tenant.

  1. What is a single tenant?
  2. Benefits of Single-tenant architecture
  3. What is multi-tenant architecture? 
  4. What is multi-tenancy in cloud computing
  5. Benefits of Multi-Tenant SaaS Architecture
  6. Difference between Single Tenant and Multi-Tenant (Single Tenant vs Multi Tenant)

1. What is a single tenant?

The users are considered as tenants since they utilise the service without permanently purchasing the license for software applications, unlike the traditional models as explained earlier. In the single-tenant architecture,  software and applications are rendered for each tenant. Therefore, there cannot be the sharing of the resources within the tenants.

The single-tenant architecture is customised as per the requisite of the client. The service providers have to build the software after considering the necessity of each client. It is like a shopping mall that is built by the owner. Each departmental store is customised as per the goods and services sold by the traders. 

Therefore, in a single-tenancy architecture,

-the customer is required to bear the costs of the whole system for running the cloud on-premise

-it is more expensive as compared to multi-tenant architecture.

-it doesn’t impart the optimum use of resources unless the complete system is in use by a client.

2. Benefits of Single-tenant architecture

1. Privacy.

The highest level of privacy is the crucial benefit in single-tenant architecture. It eliminates the chance of the other business organisations snooping in the database. It protects the enterprise from industrial espionage and maintains a competitive edge. It prevents the organisation from losing its credibility and public trust with no security violations.

2. Effortless migration.

The administration and operation can be comfortably migrated to self-hosted environments. Since the process is less complicated, the clients can focus on the administration by accessing the most recent version of the application.

3. Configuration.

The single tenancy offers more configuration and customisation as it is unique to each client. This feature applies to infrastructure, storage, and network as well. The client can architect the memory required for serving the traffic.

4. Reliability.

The application doesn’t affect each other. It enhances the consistency and efficiency of the performance of the application. The intensive applications that require higher performance can be aided with this architecture.

3. What is multi-tenant architecture? 

Multi-tenant saas architecture provides services to multiple clients from the same resources. The clients share the infrastructure of the network, application, and database. It is designed to prevent various companies from accessing each other’s information. It has a multi-tenant database that has shared utilisation. Below is the multi-tenant architecture example to enable you to understand the concept:

It is like a multi-store building, where the floor plans are generally identical. But there are secondary changes in each of the individual residential units.

4. What is multi-tenancy in cloud computing

The multi-tenant SaaS provides more limited customisation with the same code and database. Individual businesses cannot customise the software to their essential needs.

It doesn’t require authorisation as the organisations rely on the same code base as the other organisations. SaaS providers’ functionality gets delayed because multi-tenant SaaS supplier’s principal focus is on the jumbo customers. They won’t be able to acknowledge the request of small-sized customers. It will affect their customer relationship management.

5. Benefits of Multi-Tenant SaaS Architecture

1. Cost-Effective.

It is widely used in the development, deployment, and management of enterprise applications at affordable costs. It saves costs to a great extent due to a shared pool of resources. And will help the organisation to recover the expense at an early stage. It will increase profitability.

2. Common Infrastructure. 

There is no need to establish a new infrastructure. It also avoids the cost of setting up and maintaining the infrastructure. The single tenancy will not be able to use the resources effectively unless it is completely loaded, resulting in ineffective use of resources. 

3. No Customization

In multi-tenant Saas architecture, every tenant doesn’t require specific needs. Service Providers are not required specific databases, applications, and software for all the tenants. It reduces the efforts, technical personnel costs, and application costs.

4. Easy backups and No Redundancy.

In single-tenant, it is very difficult to avoid redundancy because each client needs their separate backup. It becomes easy in multi-tenant architecture because backups can be quickly taken of all the clients together without redundancy.

6. Difference between Single Tenant and Multi-Tenant (Single Tenant vs Multi Tenant)

1. Reliability.

Implementation of single-tenant architecture will isolate the client’s data from each other. It will prevent any client from accessing each other’s sensitive data. The single-tenant architecture is considered highly reliable compared to multi-tenant architecture since the client shares a common database. Multi-tenant provides less privacy and security. It reduces its reliability and security for clients that are working in the data-sensitive industry. However, such clients can use single-tenant for sensitive database and applications and multi-tenant where the comprising the privacy will not affect their operations, credibility.

2. Cost Analyses.

There is no doubt that cost is comparatively reduced in multi-tenant. Shared Infrastructure reduces maintenance costs, setup costs, and personnel costs. This makes it preferable over single-tenant.

3. Increase in computing capacities.

Multi-tenant provides an advantage to the organisation to stay in the same environment. It provides easy migration and doesn’t add up the cost of acquiring servers and computers for the organisation. Migration is easy in multi-tenant since if the client prefers to migrate from SaaS architecture to another service model, they can implement it conveniently.

Conclusion

Therefore, when an organisation opts to implement the SaaS architecture in its systems, it is very important to consider both infrastructures’ advantages and disadvantages to avoid future inconvenience. Multi-tenancy gives seamless up-gradation as soon as it is available globally. It doesn’t require any intervention of the clients. Multi-tenant provides many aspects concerning cost as compared to Single-tenant. But the organisation more concerned with privacy should opt for single-tenant to maintain its integrity.

Every architecture has its usability and differs in some aspects. The organisation should incorporate the architecture which is more suitable to them as per their preference.

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