Introduction
Modern time uses the internet for nearly all jobs, entertainment, and in almost all fields. Cybersecurity is thus of crucial importance. It is of prime importance to define cryptography, meaning that all sensitive and personal information is kept unmodified, secure, and available to read at will. And that’s exactly where the DES algorithm comes in to ensure data encryption. Hence, this discussion on the applications of DES algorithm, the DES diagram and the advantages of DES algorithm.
In this article let us look at:
 What is the DES Algorithm?
 DES Algorithm Steps
 DES Modes of Operation
 DES Implementation and Testing
 Why Learn DES?
1. What is the DES Algorithm?
The Data Encryption Standard or DES algorithm was created by the IBM team in the 1970s and is nothing but a block cipher with a symmetrickey converting all plain 64bit blocks text data into 48bit keyed ciphertext blocks. This is the present standard acceptable to NIST or the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The term symmetrickey implies the algorithm uses the same 48bit key for decrypting/encrypting data. Asymmetrical algorithms normally use a key for encryption and another key to define decryption.
The LUCIFER Feistel block cipher is a DES example used by DES. Horst Feistel, a researcher with IBM cryptography, developed it in 1971. It uses the Feistel structure with 16rounds where each round has a different key. Information security had used the data encryption DES standard ever since 1976 November when it was declared the approved federal data encryption standards. The approval was reconfirmed thrice in 1983, again I 1988 and then in 1999. However, in 2002 the AES or Advanced Encryption Standard became the accepted DES algorithm for encryption post a replacement oriented DES vs AES public competition. The approval was withdrawn in 2005 May (1999 approval for FIPS 463). But the 3DES or Triple DES algorithm is a DES algorithm example approved for government sensitivedata encryption till 2030.
Triple DES algorithm is again a block cipher with a symmetric key applying in triplicate the DES cipher form. The k1 first key is used to encrypt the k2 second decrypts, and k3, the third key, encrypts data again. In some variants, k1 and k3 may be the same, making it a 2key variant. The major factor causing the DES algorithm replacement was that its small 56bit key lengths did not compare favourably with the newer computers enhanced and larger processing and encryption powers. The legacy 3 DES algoritbhm continues to be in use and may be phased out by NIST from 2024.
2. DES Algorithm Steps
DES is an encryption algorithm that converts the DES structure into ciphertext (64bit) using all inputs in the plain text of 64bits. It is a symmetric algorithm that uses the same decryption algorithm key for decryption and encryption, unlike asymmetric algorithms.
Here are the DES algorithm steps to learn the working of DES algorithm.
 In the DES algorithm flowchart, the IPinitial permutation function receives the plain text block of 64bits and performs the permutation on it.
 It makes the data into 2 halfportions called RTPRight Plain Text and LTPLeft Plain Text, and LTPLeft Plain Text.
 Each of these blocks (RPT and LPT) undergoes an encryption process in 16 rounds.
 The 16round encryption process mentioned above follows these steps. Namely, the transformation of the key, permutation for expansion, SBox and PBox permutations and finally, the swap or XOR.
 The block is recombined from RPT and LPT in an FPFinal Permutation on the just combined block to produce a DES ciphertext in 64bits.
The process for decryption uses the reverse order of the same key since DES is a symmetrical algorithm.
3. DES Modes of Operation
The 5models of key generation in DES operations used by the DES algorithm are
 ECB Electronic Codebook where the 64bit blocks are each decrypted or encrypted independently
 CBC Cipher Block Chaining is a method where the IV Initialization Vector of a block is used to encrypt the next 64bit block.
 CFB Cipher Feedback Block uses the DES encryption algorithm where, with the preceding ciphertext as its input, it gives an output that is pseudorandom, which then undergoes the XOR process on plain text to give the next unit of ciphertext.
 OFB Output Feedback is similar to CFB except that the preceding DES encryption algorithm output serves as the input to the subsequent block.
 CTR The counter method uses an encrypted counter for each of the XORed plaintext blocks. An increment to the counter is used on subsequent blocks to generate the DES algorithm for it.
4. DES Implementation and Testing
To implement the DES algorithm, one has to select the security provider. This choice is dependent on the programming language used, for example, Python, Java, MATLAB, C etc. The next step is to select the KeyGenerator’s secret key or creating a key using the byte array/plaintext.
To test the algorithm for its implementation and accuracy, one can use GitHub recurrence relation testing procedures.
5. Why Learn DES?
One of the primary reasons to learn the basics of the DES algorithm is that it forms the basis of cryptography encryption algorithms and makes it easy to understand the testing and implementation of the much faster presentday algorithms in use.
Conclusion
Cybersecurity skills involve data encryption, and the DES algorithm is the one algorithm that stood the test of times for decades. Hence learning its implementation, working, and implementation give one the basis of understanding modernday encryption algorithms, which are way faster and sophisticated when compared to the DES algorithm.
So, have you made up your mind to make a career in Cyber Security? Visit our Master Certificate in Cyber Security (Red Team) for further help. It is the first program in offensive technologies in India and allows learners to practice in a realtime simulated ecosystem, that will give you an edge in this competitive world.
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