Django Tutorial for Beginners

Introduction

Most web applications have standard features such as authorization, database connectivity, etc. Having preset APIs or classes to tackle certain web development difficulties simplifies web developers’ lives.

 

The web framework refers to these preset APIs and technologies that can be utilized to ease standard web development activities. Django framework python is one of the most popular Python web frameworks.

 

In this Django tutorial for beginners, we will talk about the fundamental concepts of the Django framework and how we can effectively use it in our projects.

 

What Is a Web Framework?

This Django tutorial for beginners will first understand the web framework. A web framework is a source code library that allows you to create a dynamic website, web app, or internet application that is adaptable, modular, and manageable—Zend for PHP, Ruby on Rails for Ruby, etc.

 

What Is Django?

Lawrence journal world designed and developed Django in 2003, and it was officially available under the BSD licence in July 2005. DSF (Django Software Foundation) is maintaining its development and release cycle.

  • The initial release was in July 2005.
  • The latest version is 4.0.3 in March 2022.

 

Django is a Python web development framework that provides standard ways for quick and successful website creation. This high-level web framework’s primary objective is to develop sophisticated data system websites. It assists you to create and manage high-quality web applications. It allows you to streamline the development cycle process and save time for faster development.

 

Application Types

Django includes everything you want to get for your project’s deployment and running projects quickly. That is why many professionals work with this framework. Django allows you to develop complicated, database-driven web applications such as: 

  •  E-commerce platforms·
  • Machine learning
  • Data analysis 
  • Content management

 

Who’s Using Django?

Some of the biggest websites using Django are:

  • DISQUS
  • BitBucket
  • NASA
  • PBS 
  • Instagram
  • Pinterest
  • The Guardian National Geographic
  • NY Times
  • LA Times
  • Discovery Channel

 

Features of Django

In this Python Django Tutorial, we will look at some of the features of Django that make it a good web development framework:

  • The Django framework’s code is written in Python, which operates on most platforms, including Linux, Windows, and Mac OS. Django is now quite portable as a result of this.
  • Django’s documentation is among the finest in the industry. It’s no surprise that it’s so technologically advanced, and many developers prefer working with this.
  • Django is extremely scalable. Instagram is widely used social network with millions of engaged users, is an amazing illustration of Django’s versatility.
  • Django is a very safe framework. It protects against cross-site loading, Command injection, cross-site request forgery, remote code execution, and clickjacking threats.
  • Django is extremely adaptable and can be used to create practically any type of website. It may interact with any client-side framework and serve content in various forms, including JSON, HTML, XML, and others.
  • Most notably, Django allows for rapid development. It does away with the requirement for backend expertise and separate server files to create a fully operating website.

 

 Advantages of Django Framework

In this Django tutorial for beginners, we will look at the advantages of the Django framework:

 

  1. Python Implementation: Python is now considered one of the best programming languages that have witnessed an exponential increase in demand and acceptance in recent years. Python is renowned as a user-friendly programming language because of its simple syntax, code readability, and English-like instructions.

 

  1. Batteries Included Framework: This means it has many built-in features. Instead of developing your code, import the packages or components you want to utilize.

 

Django batteries provide several contents that include:

  • Users are authenticated using the auth package.
  • Admin package for Admin control.
  • Sessions package for session management.
  • Messages can be displayed or managed using the Messages package.
  • Create a Google sitemap with the Sitemaps package.
  • Postgres functionalities are included in the Postgres package.

 

Connecting to the Content Types Framework

 

  1. Fast Processing: Django employs the MVT architecture, which simplifies and accelerates the process of delivering data over the Internet.
  2. Supported by a Vast and Active Community: Django has a large and active community working diligently on making the framework more beginner-friendly and stabilising the framework by introducing new features. Django documentation is simple to read and valuable as an independent tutorial. It will help you understand various capabilities and can be used as a major source of knowledge.
  3. Django Is Scalable: One of Django’s most significant advantages is managing traffic and mobile app API usage for millions of users. It is built so that it can accommodate any hardware modification.

 

Django Architecture: MVC and MVT

 

MVC Pattern:

When we discuss applications which provide UI (web or desktop), we usually talk about MVC architecture. MVC pattern comprises of Model, View, and Controller.

  • The Model explains the data structure and takes care of querying the database.
  • The View explains what data should be presented and returns an HTTP response.
  • The Controller handles the user interaction.

 

Django MVC-MVT Pattern

 

  • Model-View-Template (MVT) is a different idea from MVC. The primary distinction between these two architectural patterns is that Django oversees the Controller component. The template consists of an HTML file combined with a Django Template Language (DTL) file.
  • Django receives a resource request from a user. Django operates as a controller, checking the URL for accessible resources.
  • If the URL matches, a view that interacts with the Model and template is invoked. Django then replies to the user by sending a template.

 

Components of Django

Now in this Django tutorial for beginners, we will discuss the components of Django.

 

Form:

Django features a robust form library that handles form rendering as HTML. The library aids in the validation and conversion of provided data to Python types.

 

Authentication:

It manages user accounts, groups, cookie-based user sessions.

 

Admin:

It gathers information from your models to give a powerful interface for managing content on your site.

 

Internationalization:

Django supports text translation into many languages and locale-specific structuring of dates, times, numerals, and time zones.

 

Security:

Django delivers protection against the following attacks:

  • Cross-site scripting
  • Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
  • SQL injection
  • Remote code execution
  • Clickjacking

 

Install Django Framework

Now let us know how to install Django Framework in this Django tutorial for beginners

.

Step 1 – Install the Latest Python Version:

  • Download Python Link: https://www.python.org/downloads/
  • To verify the Python version or if it was previously installed on your machine, enter the terminal/command line and type python.

Syntax: python

Code:

  1. linux@root: ~$ python
  2. Python 3.8.5 (default, July 3 2022, 15:41:15) 
  3. [GCC 9.3.0] on linux
  4. >>> | 

 

Step 2 – Create Virtual Environment (venv):

A virtual venv is a tool that allows you to create an isolated virtual Python environment for your Python applications. To create a virtual environment, we must first install and then configure the virtual environment.

For installation: “ pip install virtualenv ”

To create and activate virtualenv: 

Syntax: virtualenv <virtualenv_name> 

Code:

  1. linux@root:~/django_proj/MOBShop$ virtualenv venv
  2. linux@root:~/django_proj/MOBShop$ . venv/bin/activate   
  3. (venv) linux@root:~/django_proj/MOBShop$    

 

Step 3 – Installing Django:

We leverage the pip installer package to make Django installation simple. Pip is a Python package installer for managing and installing Python software packages. Using pip, we can install various Python modules.

 

Syntax: pip install <module_name>

Code:   

  1. (venv) linux@root:~/django_proj/MOBShop$ pip install Django==3.2

 

Step 4 – Django Database:

Django, by default, supports SQLite3 databases. However, Django also supports various database engines such as MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, etc. You can readily set up any of them based on your needs.

 

Step 5 – Django WebServer:

  • Django includes a light web server that can be used to create and test web applications. This webserver is pre-configured to operate with the Django framework and automatically starts the web server anytime the app code is modified.
  • Django also generates wsgi.py files when you start a Django project. WSGI is an abbreviation for web server gateway interface. This module aims to offer a consistent interface between Django applications and web servers.
  • Django works with the Apache web server and some major web servers.

 

Create a Project Using Django Python Framework

 

Now that we have installed Django in the Django tutorial for beginners let’s start building a website with the Django framework Python. All web apps you develop in Django are called projects, and a project is a collection of applications. An application is a suite of software files driven mainly by the Model-View-Templates (MVT) design.

Assume we plan to develop an e-commerce website; the website is our Django project, and the goods, accounts, and carts engine are apps. As a result, this arrangement makes it easier to migrate an app between Django projects, and each application functions independently.

 

Creating Django Project:

To start a Django project, type this command in the command prompt.

Syntax: django-admin startproject <nameoftheproject> .

Code:

1 (venv) linux@root:~/django_project/MOBShop$ django-admin startproject MOBShop 

 

When we install Django, it includes the Django admin command line. We can run this application from the command prompt Django-admin accepts different parameters. We will then be able to build a project called Cell Shop in the current folder using these variables.

A folder will be created called “CellShop” with the following format −

  1. MOBShop/
  2. MOBShop/
  3.  __init__.py
  4.  settings.py
  5. urls.py
  6. wsgi.py
  7.  manage.py

 

  • init.py: This indicates that the CellShop folder is a package and that we can integrate components from this package into other modules.
  • setting.py: A module in which we define numerous parameters for our apps.
  • urls.py: This module describes what people should see when they see /index, /about, /contact.
  • WSGI: It serves as a web server gateway interface.
  • manage.py: This module is used to administer the Django project. We can use this to launch our web server, deal with our database, and so on.

 

Setting Up Your Django Project:

You must configure your project in the CellShop/settings.py subfolder: Then, to start debugging, set “DEBUG = True “. Debug mode provides a detailed report about your project’s problem. In a live project, never set DEBUG to True. However, if you want the Django lite webserver to serve static files, you must set this to True. Always do it when in development mode.

The database can be configured using the ‘Database’ dictionary, also found in settings.py. The SQLite database is the default database engine. Django also supports MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, MongoDB and NoSQL. You can assign a database engine based on your needs.

Ensure you have the same associated database driver installed on your system before installing any new database engine.

Now your project has been effectively created and set up.

To check the project’s status, enter the following command into the command prompt.

Syntax: python manage.py runserver

Code:

1 (venv) linux@root:~/django_project/CellShop$ python3 manage.py runserver

Once the code is run successfully, it will give a developer server.

 

Django – Apps Life Cycle

A project is composed of several apps. These applications are specific functional sections of the Django project, not the complete program. For example, assume you have to create a website or web app similar to Flipkart. Flipkart is one of the biggest online retailers and serves several purposes.

 

Rather than implementing all of these features in a single Django project, we break it into discrete domains that each focus on specific functionality. For example, we can construct functional sections for product planning, order tracking, customer service, etc.

Our operations for interacting with customers are distinct from those for managing products. We organise the Django project into many Django apps using this approach. Each app relies on a specific purpose and is the core of a Python package.

Our operations for interacting with customers are distinct from those for managing products. We organise the Django project into many Django apps using this approach. Each app relies on a specific purpose, and each app is, in essence, a Python package.

 

Conclusion

Django is a web development framework used to create and manage online applications. Django is versatile, adaptable, and highly protected, making website development an effortless and time-saving experience. Django adopts a minimalist design approach throughout its implementation, making it simple to implement web development best practices. We hope this Django tutorial for beginners has helped us understand the Django framework’s fundamental concepts.

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