Encapsulation In Oops With Example


The cornerstone of object-oriented programming is encapsulation. The Java language requires linguistic constructs to combine properties and operations. Can we primarily determine an object’s attributes based on how two or more items interact or communicate?

Both data hiding and encapsulation make use of related concepts. It enables programmers to work independently. After that, it promotes effective cooperation during the website’s development. Properties become apparent whenever an item interacts with another object.

In this post, you’ll learn what is encapsulation in oops, practical instances of encapsulation in oops with example, structure, use cases, and more.

What Is Encapsulation in Oops?

The risk of interference from other things with who or what you are is eliminated via encapsulation. Users can interact with additional programs or objects to interact with your products in a regulated setting. It facilitates productive teamwork, and data hiding is strongly related to it.

Things in the real world are independent and have distinct characteristics seen from the front. Data is constrained and governed by code in encapsulation. Any modifications that could be made to specific class components have no impact on how things are represented. It is not difficult or complex to carry out the procedure.

There is a wall or shield between the program and the external representation. Once it has been encapsulated, your programs shouldn’t be challenging to use and should be easy for others to access.

Building Blocks for Encapsulation

Using encapsulation to create abstractions of externally adjustable data types. In Java, encapsulation protects an object’s identity, not the actual object. We may perform the encapsulation technique and prevent unauthorised access or change by making instance attributes private.

Class interfaces and implementations are combined as encapsulation in the Java programming language in a single file. In C#, encapsulation explains the representation of the many elements and their connections to one another. Users can only access and modify variable values using class methods. The integration process is kept separate from the class interface in C. The class description should provide some details about how objects are presented.

Encapsulation in Action

Here’s a real-life example of encapsulation example to help you understand the concept of encapsulation:

A refrigerator’s outside body acts as a barrier, protecting the inside wires from harm. The interior differs from what we perceive on the exterior. By rotating the steering wheel, we may control the direction of the car. To us, the wheel is unimportant.

OOPS, Encapsulation Has Some Benefits:

Encapsulation in programming offers the following benefits, among others:

  • Encapsulation makes it easier to maintain software
  • It speeds up application development and improves the final product’s quality
  • It makes the environment outside less complicated
  • Encapsulating makes a subclass private and prevents other users from seeing how it is implemented
  • The encapsulating code might be modified despite being protected from the outside world.

The Advantages of Encapsulating (Java Encapsulation Advantages)

  1. Data obscuring: The user won’t know how the class stores its values. They just have to be aware that we will initialize variables with part of those settings after sending the settings to a setter method.
  2. Increased flexibility: In this case, a user won’t be aware of the class’s internal implementation. Remove the setter methods like setName() and setAge() from the software as mentioned earlier if you want the attributes to be read-only.
  3. Reusability: It also improves reusability and is easy to change to meet new requirements.

Why Is Java Encapsulation Required?

Java strongly relies on encapsulation, yet

  • It controls who has access to what data
  • The code is modified following the specifications
  • As a result, we can create a loose pair
  • This makes our application less difficult
  • It also enables you to change the code section without changing the functionality or other code of the app.

Java’s Encapsulation Versus Abstraction

Concepts from object-oriented programs, such as inheritance, abstraction, and encapsulation, are often blended. Before comparing the benefits of encapsulation in java vs abstraction in Java, let’s briefly go through the key points.

Data and processes are grouped into programming units through encapsulation, limiting unauthorised access to them.

The generalization produced from the particulars of reality is referred to as an “abstraction,” and the parameters of computer paradigms do not constrain it.

Encapsulation vs Abstraction

Encapsulation and abstraction perform better together in this area, though. Programming abstraction has been described as manipulating higher-level variables while hiding lower-level ones. Interaction between program logic and end-users is made easier by attractive user interfaces. The developers may also represent actual items in the real world as comprehensive entities by utilising classes and objects.

Surprisingly, the combining and information-hiding aspects of encapsulation in OOP techniques promote abstraction.

Java Encapsulation: How To Implement or Utilise It

There are two main techniques to accomplish or implement encapsulation in Java programs.

  • Declaring the instance parameter for the class type as private. to stop someone from contacting the module from outside of it
  • Include accessible setter and getter methods in the class to allow users to alter the values of variables or attributes.

How Can Data Hiding Be Implemented Programmatically?

Data hiding is something we can achieve or put into practice. Few people in the class have access to data members (variables) that have been designated private. The ability to achieve security is data hiding’s most significant advantage.

Key Points

  • According to the advice, data members in the class should be set as personal
  • Combining data hiding with abstraction yields nothing other than encapsulation.

Important Points to Remember

  • Polymorphism, inheritance, and abstraction are other OOP principles. One of the four facets of OOP principles is encapsulation
  • OOP ideas are incorporated into Java programs using four principles. Encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism are the four of them.


Companies that hire software developers favour object-oriented programming (OOP) since it provides several benefits of what is encapsulated in oops. In India, an annual salary of INR 8,75,000 is considered the standard for an occupation requiring object-oriented programming. A thorough grasp of OOP can help you further your career if you are presently working in software development.

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