Introduction

Welcome to this comprehensive Expressjs tutorial. Express.js (alternatively Expressjs) is a web application software that has a simple API to build websites, web apps and back ends. The lightweight structure makes it popular along with the Node.js feature. This tutorial provides you with complete insight into Express.js along with all the fundamental information. 

In this article about Expressjs Tutorial, let us look at:

  1. What is Express.js?
  2. Features of Express.js
  3. Express.js installation
  4. Fundamental concepts of Express.js

Now let us explore further into the topic and get informed on the working of Express.js.

1. What is Express.js?

This framework provides the user with a minimal interface to develop applications. To build an application, numerous tools are required. Express.js provides you with flexible and upgraded tools. This web application is built over Node.js. It provides a vast range of modules that are on npm and can be directly plugged into Express. 

Developed by TJ Holowaychuk, Express.js was released in May 2010. It was initially managed by IBM, but now it is under the Node.js Foundation and many open source contributors. 

Express.js requires just javascript, making it easier for the developers to program and build a web application without any hassle. On Express.js the user can build single-page, multi-page, and hybrid web applications. One must be thoroughly educated on javascript and HTML to use Express.js. 

Express.js majorly handles the backend part of the MEAN stack. MEAN software stack is the javascript technology that is a part of Express.js. MEAN here stands for MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS, and Node.js. It manages routing, sessions, and HTTP requests.

Continuing this Expressjs tutorial, let us look into some of the most notable features of Express.js.

2. Features of Express.js

The features of Express.js are:

  • Express.js provides numerous functions that are a part of Node.js which enables the user to utilize the functions anywhere in the program. This saves time from the tedious work of coding.
  • The various functions of Express.js are organized by the Middleware. The Middleware is a part of Express.js that has access to the client request, database and other middlewares.
  • The superior routing mechanism which is present in Express.js helps in preserving the state of the webpage with the assistance of other URLs.
  • The developers can build effective content on the webpage using the Html templates that are present on the server-side. 
  • Debugging is important to build a successful web application. Express.js provides debugging facility that detects the exact bug location in the application.
  • Developers need to install Node.js along with Express.js in order to use it.
  • It follows the Model-View-Controller ( MVO ) architecture.
  • The configuration and customization steps are made easy for the user.
  • The integration process with the developer is made simpler.

Let’s get into the nitty-gritty of this  Expressjs tutorial and discuss the installation process:

3. Express.js Installation

To install Express.js, you need to install Node.js beforehand. 

In order to install Express.js creating a project directory is required. Along with that package.json file must be created to hold the project discrepancies. The below code has to be entered:

npm init

To install it globally the following code has to be entered:

npm install -g express

To install it into the file or project folder, the below command can be used:

npm install express –save

Since the installation process is complete, let us look at some of the fundamental concerts of Express.js

4. Fundamental concepts of Express.js

  • Routing and HHTP method

It is the process of identifying the specific behavior of an application. It is used to specify how an application should react to a client request to a specific route, path, or URI, as well as a specific HTTP Request process. Each route may have several handler functions that are executed when the user searches for a particular route.

The structure for routing in Express.js is;

app.METHOD(PATH, HANDLER)

The four HHTP methods help in specifying the operation that is requested by the user. The various methods are;

  • GET
  • POST
  • PUT
  • DELETE
  • Middleware

Middlewares are capable of performing code execution of any kind. They provide access to the request and response objects, as well as the next function in the application’s request-response loop. They can call the next middleware that is present in the cycle. 

  • Cookies 

Cookies contain certain data or files that are stored in the user’s computer. This data is collected from the websites the user visits. The components of a cookie are as follows;

  • Name
  • Value
  • Zero or more attributes

To use a cookie, the user must install the cookie parser middle through npm into the node modules folder. 

  • Rest API’s

Here REST stands for representational State Transfer. It is used in various web service development making use of HTTP request to GET, PUT, POST and DELETE.

  • Database Connectivity

The two major types of Database that are present in the Express.js –

  • MySQL
  • MongoDB
  • Templating

The templating option helps in creating and using Html template with minimal code. Some of the popular templates that work Express.js are;

  • Pug
  • Moustache
  • Dust
  • Handlebars
  • Hogan
  • Liquor
  • Toffee
  • Whiskers

Conclusion

This brings us to the end of this Expressjs tutorial.

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