Introduction 

Welcome to this Linux tutorial. Every computer has background software that helps in receiving and delivering the commands that the user feeds. Without a particular managing system, the computer will not be able to connect the hardware and the software. It basically speaks with the computer and provides instruction on what to perform. This manager is known as an operating system. Every desktop, laptop, server computer, gaming consoles, mobile phones, smartwatches and iPods are embedded with an operating system. 

In this article about Linux tutorial, let us look at:

  1. What is Linux?
  2. Structure of Linux 
  3. UNIX Vs Linux
  4. Linux Distribution and License
  5. The core of this Linux tutorial: the Linux installation process
  6. Linux Text Editors

1. What is Linux?

Now that this Linux tutorial has got you interested in learning Linux, let us get started from the basics. Linux is an operating system. So for those who are new to operating systems, it is the most essential software that helps the smooth running of the computer. The operating system plays a crucial role in connecting the user to their computer from managing the software, hardware, memory, and various programmes. Just like Microsoft and UNIX, Linux is one such open-source operating system. It receives the user’s command and delivers it to the respected programme or software that deals with hardware and other resources. 

Developed in the early 1990s the Linux operating system was developed by the Free Software Foundation and Linus Torvalds. 

2. Structure of Linux 

Like any other operating system, Linux has a set of software that functions differently. The components are,

  • Kernel- The Kernal is the heart of this operating system. It manages the communication between the software and the devices. The device driver in the Kernal stores the data that is related to all the devices. It helps in keeping track of the used and unused memory for better performance in the future. 
  • System libraries- For the kernel to perform smoothly, certain applications have to be developed in order to initiate the kernel to execute the task. These applications are stored in the system libraries. They are given a particular instruction according to the kernels function. Glibc is one such system library for Linux.
  • System tools- Linux has a set of system tools that are exclusive to certain functions. These simple commands are free to everyone.
  • Development tools- These tools are known as toolchains. The developers use these to develop their application and provide the required update.
  • End-User tools- They are provided to make the application unique to the developers or users. The tools include multimedia players, browsers, etc.

3. UNIX Vs Linux

A proper Linux tutorial would be remiss if it didn’t compare Linux to its competing UNIX:

Key differences:

  • UNIX OS was created in 1960 and the source code is not public. Whereas, Linus was created in 1991 and the source code is available to the public.
  • Linux’s default shell is BASH and UNIX’s is Bourne Shell.
  • Linux has versions such as Redhat, Ubuntu, Solaris, and Opensues, whereas UNIX has HP-UX, AIS, and BDS.
  • Linux was developed for Intel’s Processors. But now it is widely used for a number of CPUs that also include ARM. UNIX is available on Itanium machines.
  • UNIX is not portable, whereas Linux is portable and can be done through a USB stick.

4. Linux Distribution and License

Linux DistributionWhy Use It
Ubuntu:This well known Linux distribution was developed in 2004. The main feature is that this can be used without a command line. This is the next version of Debian and can be used by amateurs. It has developed its own desktop environment known as unity.
Linux Mint:It is similar to Ubuntu. Even though used as an alternative for Ubuntu earlier, now this has its own desktop environment such as cinnamon and mate
Debian: it is considered to be one of the most stable distributions
RedHat:  It is a commercial distributor and the products are freely available. The products include RHEL and Fedora.
Fedora:  This focuses on providing the latest software versions. GNOME3 is its default desktop environment.

5. The core of this Linux tutorial: the Linux installation process

Step 1: Download the Linux OS from Ubuntu or Mint. A single ISO file will be downloaded. This step is the first and foremost to start the installation process.

Step 2: Once the OS is installed, you need to create a bootable flash drive. This can be done using Rufus and download the portable version. Rufus is easy, fast and free to use. 

  • Plugin the USB or the flash drive and then run the Rufus utility.
  • Select the device field that is present at the top corner. In this case, select the USB or Flash Drive option.
  • Click the disc icon near the ‘Create a Bootable Disk using’ checkbox and select the downloaded IOS file from the downloads folder. Then click ‘Open’.
  • Click ‘Start’ and wait until the IOS is installed and the drive is formatted.

Step 3: In the BOIS, find the boot or startup menu and select the ‘USB Drive’ or ‘Flash Drive’ in the boot order. Later save and exit.

Step 4: Once the Boot is completed, you have to choose whether this OS alone should be running the system or should it run along with the older OS.

  • You need to boot the USB or flash drive directly into Linux.
  • On the desktop, double click the Linux icon.
  • Select the required options from the menu and Click ‘Finish’

The process for installing Linux is completed.

6. Linux Text Editors

Linux Text Editors are used in numerous applications. They are for editing texts, updating user instruction files, coding, etc. There are two types of text editors namely, Command-Line text editor and GUI Text editors. The former include Vi, Nano, and pico, whereas the latter one includes Gedit and Kwrite.

List of Linux Commands

  • pwd command
  • cd command
  • is command
  • cat command
  • cp command 
  • mv command

Conclusion

This brings us to the end of this Linux tutorial. 

If you are interested in learning more about software development, you can check out our holistic Master Certificate Program in Full Stack Development.

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