Introduction

Welcome to this SQL server tutorial. Data handling is one the most important aspects of today’s technology-driven world. SQL is one such data manager that is designed by Microsoft. This article focuses on SQL’s working, features, operations, and commands. At the end of this SQL server tutorial, you will be well informed on how to master the transact SQL.

In this article about SQL Server Tutorial, let us look at:

  1. What is SQL Server?
  2. Installation of SQL server
  3. Connecting to SQL server using SSMS
  4. Accessing the Database Engine
  5. SQL Server Architechture
  6. Types of comments in SQL
  7. SQL Server Datatypes

1. What is SQL Server?

SQL Server is a relational database management system or RDMS. the server is connected to Transact -SQL or T-SQL, which is Microsoft’s implementation of SQL that has a set of programming constructs. It works specifically on Windows software and Linux software. 

The main components of SQL are:

  • Database engine
  • SQL server
  • SQL server agent
  • SQL server browser
  • SQL server full-text search
  • SQL server VVS writer
  • SQL server analysis service (SSAS)
  • SQL server reporting service (SSRS)

Diving deeper into this SQL server tutorial, let us discuss the main two components individually;

  • Database Engine

It is the main component of the SQL server. The database consists of two important engines namely, relational engine and storage engine. The former processes queries and the latter manages database files, pages, index, etc. The database engine involves in the process of Rapid transaction processing and Data Security. 

The relational engine determines the aptest way to process a query. Therefore the relational engine is also called a query processor. It collects the data from the storage engine and proceeds the results based on the input query. The other tasks of the relational engine are memory management, thread and task management and buffer management.

On the other hand, the storage engine stores the data and retrieves it from the storage systems such as SAN and discs. 

  • SQL Operating System (SQLOS)

This operating system provides services such as memory and I/O management. They also provide synchronisation services and exception handling.

A proper SQL server tutorial would be remiss if we didn’t discuss the installation process:

2. Installation of SQL server

You can follow the below steps to install the SQL server:

Step 1: The SQL can be download from the official Microsoft website. On the official page, you will find the Microsoft SQL server download option. Once you are on the page, the display provides you with two option to select from. One is the developer edition and the other is the Enterprise edition. Here we are following the Developer edition in the tutorial. Click on it and the installation begins. Once the download is complete, double click the file and launch the installer. 

Step 2: The installer provides three installation options like Basic, Custom and Developer media. Choose the custom type when the installer takes you to the SQL Server installation wizard. 

Step 3: the next step is to provide the storage location details where the installation file will be downloaded. Then click on the install button.

Step 4: The page redirects to the installation progress and the process will take a while to complete.

Step 5: Once the installation package is complete, open the folder where the package is downloaded. Double click the Setup.exe file. 

Step 6: SQL Server installation centre window opens and then select the installation option that is present on the left-hand side of the window. 

Step 7: Click the first link that states the new SQL Server stand-alone installation. This will launch a wizard to install the SQL server.

Step 8: The product key window appears. In the specify a free edition column, select the developer option and then click Next. 

Step 9: Read the terms and conditions carefully and then click on the I accept the licence box. Then check the Use Microsoft update box. This allows you to get security updates. Then click the next button.

Step 10: Before installation, it checks for prerequisites. If there is no error, click the next button. Later select the features that you are interested to install. For now, check the Database Engine Services box and then click Next.

Step 11: For the Instance ID, enter the name and the install ID of the SQL server and click Next. In the next window, specify the account and collation configuration. Select the default configuration and click Next. 

Step 12: Next specify the Database security mode. Check the Mixed Mode and then enter the password. Click current user and then select the Next button.

Step 13: In the next window, verify the SQL server features that have to be installed and the Click Install. The installation begins and once the process is complete, click the OK button. The installation is complete.

3. Connecting to SQL server using SSMS

Step 1: Click on the Install SSMS option on the installation complete window. Then choose the download SSMS option. 

Step 2: Once it is downloaded, double click the file. Then click o the Install option. The installation is complete.

4. Accessing the Database Engine

Once the SSMS is installed, the next step is to access the Database Engine.

When SQL server management studio is opened from the Start menu, fill in the server name and authentication mode. Then click connect. 

5. SQL Server Architechture

The server architecture consists of the following components;

  • Server 
  • Relational engine
  • Command parser
  • Optimiser
  • Query executor
  • Storage engine

6. Types of comments in SQL

There are two types of comments in SQL

  • Single line comments- They begin with two hyphens.
  • Multi-line comments – They begin with /* and end with */.

7. SQL Server Datatypes

Datatype is the different types of data that any column and variable can store in SQL Server.

They types are;

  • Exact numeric
  • Approximate numeric
  • Date and time
  • Character strings
  • Binary strings
  • Unicode character strings

Conclusion

This brings us to the end of this SQL server tutorial.

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