INTRODUCTION

Many programmers are using JavaScript closure for operating the programs efficiently and effectively by reducing time and efforts. To understand the concepts, it is important to have the answers to the variable scope and to understand what is closure in JavaScript. Here, variables scope represents the accessibility of functions in the program and its scope and limit as well. Closure in JavaScript helps in connecting the inner function to the outer function.  

  1. What is variable scope? 
  2. What is closure in JavaScript?

1.What is variable scope?

The location at which the variable is declared provides the scope for the variable. It clarifies the part of the program at which a particular variable can be accessed. It helps limit the scope of variables that helps protect the functions in the program from many unexpected ways. Limiting the scope of variables assists in saving time and energy while debugging. The scope of variables mainly defines the visibility of the variables. After the declaration of the blocks, every part of the program can access the variables.

There are mainly two places where the variable scope can be declared: the local variable present inside the function, and the global variable, which presents the outside the function.  

Local variable

The variable which can be described within the function block and can be used within the function is described as the local variable. It is a collective statement program enclosed within the block or function with the help of curly braces. These statements are enclosed within left ({) and right (}) curly braces. 

There is a provision within the function for the blocks in C that one function can be presented in another one as well. Hence, the variable which is present in the specific block can be accessed in that particular block and other inner blocks of that block. But that can’t be accessed from outside of the block. 

Example

#include <stdio.h>

Int main ()

{

    /* local variable definition and initialization */ int x, y, z;

    /* actual initialization */ x=20;

    y = 30;

    z = x y;

    printf (“value of x = %d and z = %d\n” , x, y, z);

     return 0;

}

Global variable

The variable represented outside the block but has accessibility outside the function and is defined as the global variable. On top of the C program, global variables can be outside the function or any other specific block. Here, the variables hold the value throughout the program, due to which there are accessible within any function.

Example

#include <stdio.h>

/* global variable definition */int z;

Int main ()

     /* local variable definition and initialization */ int x, y;

     / * actual initialization */ x=20;

     y = 30;

     z = x y;

     print (“value of x = %d, y =%d and z = %d\n”, x, z);

     return 0;

}

2.What is closure in JavaScript?

JavaScript closure assists is a feature that helps the inner functions to have access to the outer function’s variable. Closures help in clarifying the appropriate scope of function to save time and effort. It also controls the operations of variables that are shared with nested functions.      

A closure is the combined feature of the functional bundled with references to the lexical environment. It allows the outer function’s scope to have access to the inner function. Whenever the function is created at the time of creation, only the closures are created in JavaScript.

For using the closure, a function is required to be defined in another function and expose it, and for exposing either, it should be returned or passed to another function. Even after the return of the outer function, the inner function will have the ability of accessibility. It also assists in providing the privacy of the data as it focuses on interfacing the program, not on implementing it. Closures also assist in creating the stateful functions whose return value can be influenced by the internal function.

Example

<script>

 var a = 20

  function First_func()

  {

   var b =20

   function Second_func()

  {

 var c =20a b

 return c

}

 return Second_func();

}

 var sum =First_func()

 document.write(“The sum is ‘ sum )

 </script>

The sum is 50

In this example, ‘ a’ is describe as a global variable and can be accessed within the program from anywhere, whereas ‘b’ is described within the function “First_func” and ‘c’ is presented in the ‘b’ function, which is a nested function.

The closure can access the variable from another function’s scope; function “Second_func” has access to all variables a, b, and c.

CONCLUSION

Hence, the variability of the scope represents the accessibility of the variables within and outside of the function and defines the scope of the functions as well. The variable scope can be declared at two places local and global variables. While going to answer the question of the use of closure in JavaScript, we will say that it helps connect the inner functions with the outer functions. As it provides the control to programs in which variables are nestled between the functions.

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